Skip to main content
Project Mecistops


Slender-Snouted Crocodiles

Early works describing the genus Mecistops and its history of content species, studies dedicated to their ecology and evolution, and papers providing ancillary information, mostly distribution data or systematics studies.

Bennett, E.T. (1834) On several Animals recently added to the Society’s Menagerie. In: Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. Richard Taylor, London, 110 pp.

Bennett, E.T. (1835) Crocodilus leptorhynchus. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, 3, 128–132.

Boulenger, G.A. (1889) Catalogue of the Chelonians, Rhynchocephalians, and Crocodiles in the British Museum (Natural History). New. The Trustees., London.

Cüvier, G.L. (1824) Recherches Sur Les Ossemens Fossiles. Vol. 5 2eme. G. Dufour & E. d’Ocagne Libraries, Paris, 185 pp.

Fuchs, K.H., Mertens, R. and Wermuth, H. (1974) Zum status von Crocodylus cataphractus und Osteolaemus tetraspis. Stuttgarter Beitraege zuer Naturkunde, Serie A. Biologie, 266, 1–8.

Gray, J.E. (1844) Catalogue of the tortoises, crocodiles, and amphibaenians in the collection of the British Museum. The Trustees, London.

Gray, J.E. (1867) Synopsis of the species of recent crocodilians or Emydosaurians, chiefly founded on the specimens in the British Museum and the Royal College of Surgeons. Transactions of the Zoological Society of London, 6, 125–169.

Gray, J.E. (1872) Catalogue of the Shield Reptiles in the Collection of the British Museum.  Part II: Emydosaurians, Rhynchocephalia, and Amphisbaenians. London.

Aoki, R. (1976) [On the generic status of Mecitops (Crocodylidae) and the origin of Tomistoma and Gavialis]. Bulletin Atagawa Institute, 6-7, 23–30 [in Japanese].

McAliley, L.R., Willis, R.E., Ray, D.A., White, P.S., Brochu, C.A., & Densmore, L.D. (2006) Are crocodiles really monophyletic? Evidence for subdivisions from sequence and morphological data. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 39, 16–32.

Merchant, M., K. Juneau, J. Germillion, R. Falconi, A. Doucet, M.H. Shirley. (2011) Characterization of Serum Phospholipase A2 Activity in Three Diverse Species of West African Crocodiles. Biochemistry Research International, doi: 10.1155/2011/925012.

Merchant, M., A. Royer, Q. Broussard, S. Gilbert, R. Falconi, and M.H. Shirley. (2011) Characterization of Serum Dipeptidyl Peptidase IV Activity in Three Diverse Species of West African Crocodilians. Herpetological Journal 21: 153-159.

Merchant, M., C. Determan, J. Gremillion, K. Juneau, A. Doucet, R. Falconi, M.H. Shirley. (2013) Serum Complement Activity in Two Species of Divergent Central African Crocodiles. Entomology, Ornithology & Herpetology 2(2): 110. doi: 10.4172/2161-0983.1000110

Pauwels, O.S.G., Barr, B., & Sanchez, M.L. (2007) Diet and size records for Crocodylus cataphractus (Crocodylidae) in South-Western Gabon. Hamadryad, 31, 360–361.

Pauwels, O.S.G., Mamonekene, V., Dumont, P., Branch, W.R., Burger, M., & Lavoue, S. (2003) Diet records for Crocodylus cataphractus (Reptilia: Crocodylidae) at Lake Divangui, Ogooue-Maritime Province, southwestern Gabon. Hamadryad, 27, 200–204.

Shirley, M.H. (2010) Slender-snouted Crocodile Crocodylus cataphractus. In: S. C. Manolis and C. Stevenson (Eds), Crocodiles. Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan. Crocodile Specialist Group, Darwin, pp. 54–58.

Shirley, M.H. (2013) Hierarchical Processes Structuring Crocodile Populations in Central Africa. PhD Dissertation, University of Florida, 200 pp.

Shirley, M.H., Vliet, K.A., Carr, A.N., & Austin, J.D. (2014) Rigorous approaches to species delimitation have significant implications for African crocodilian systematics and conservation. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 281, 20132483.

Waitkuwait, W.E. (1985a) Contribution a l’etude des crocodiles en Afrique de l’Ouest. Nature et Faune, 1, 13–29.

Waitkuwait, W.E. (1985b) Investigations of the breeding biology of the West African slender-snouted crocodile Crocodylus cataphractus. Amphibia-Reptilia, 6, 387–399.×00371

Waitkuwait, W.E. (1989) Present knowledge of the West African slender-snouted crocodile, Crocodylus cataphractus Cuvier 1824 and the West African dwarf crocodile Osteolaemus tetraspis, Cope 1861. In: Crocodile Specialist Group of the Species Survival Commission (Ed), Crocodiles: Ecology, Management and Conservation. International Union for Conservation of Nature, Gland, Switzerland, pp. 260–275.×00371

Abercrombie, C.L. (1978) Notes on West African crocodilians (Reptilia, Crocodilia). Journal of Herpetology, 12, 260–262.

Akani, G.C., Luiselli, L., Angelici, F.M., & Politano, E. (1998) Preliminary data on distribution, habitat and status of crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus, Crocodylus cataphractus and Osteolaemus tetraspis) in the eastern Niger delta (Nigeria). Bulletin Societe Herpetologique de France, 87-88, 35–43.

Aoki, R. (1982) [The phylogeny and evolution of crocodilians. I.]. Kaiyoh to Seibutu (Aquabiology), 4, 122–127. [in Japanese].

Aoki, R. (1983) A new generic allocation of Tomistoma machikanense, a fossil crocodilian from the Pleistocene of Japan. Copeia, 1983, 89–95.

Aoki, R. (1992) Fossil crocodilians from the late Tertiary strata in the Sinda Basin, eastern Zaire. African Study Monographs, 13, 67–85.

Baikie, B. (1857) On the skull of a species of Mecistops inhabiting the River Bínuë or Tsádda, in Central Africa. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, 25, 57–59.

Behra, O. (1987a) Etude de repartition des populations de crocodiles du Congo, du Gabon et de la R.C.A. 1ere partie: Congo. Secretariat de la Faune et de la Flore. Museum National d’Histoire Naturelle de Paris. Paris, France.

Behra, O. (1987b) Etude de repartition des populations de crocodiles du Congo, du Gabon et de la R.C.A. 2eme partie: Gabon. Secretariat de la Faune et de la Flore. Museum National d’Histoire Naturelle de Paris. Paris, France.

Behra, O. (1987c) Etude de repartition des populations de crocodiles du Congo, du Gabon et de la R.C.A. 3eme partie: R.C.A. Secretariat de la Faune et de la Flore. Museum National d’Histoire Naturelle de Paris. Paris, France.

Behra, O. (1993) Togo. Crocodile Specialist Group Newsletter, 12, 17.

Behra, O., & Lippai, C. (1994) Congo: export of crocodile skins 1970-1978. Crocodile Specialist Group Newsletter, 13, 4–5.

Brazaitis, P.J. (1971) Notes on Crocodylus intermedius Graves, a review of the recent literature. Zoologica, 56, 71–75.

Brochu, C.A. (1997) Morphology, fossils, divergence timing, and the phylogenetic relationships of Gavialis. Systematic Biology, 46, 479–522.

Brochu, C.A. (2000) Phylogenetic relationships and divergence timing of Crocodylusbased on morphology and the fossil record. Copeia, 2000, 657–673.;2

Brochu, C.A. (2001) Crocodylian snouts in space and time: Phylogenetic approaches toward adaptive radiation. American Zoolologist, 41, 564–585.

Brochu, C.A. (2003) Phylogenetic approaches toward Crocodylian history. Annual Review Earth and Planetary Science, 31, 399–427.

Brochu, C.A., & Storrs, G.W. (2012) A giant crocodile from the Plio-Pleistocene of Kenya, the phylogenetic relationships of Neogene African crocodylines, and the antiquity of Crocodylus in Africa. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 32, 587–602.

Chirio, L. & Lebreton, M. (2007) Atlas des reptiles du Caméroun. Paris: Publications Scientifiques du MNHN, IRD-Paris.

Cüvier, G.L. (1807) Sur les différentes espèces de crocodiles vivants et sur leurs caractères distinctifs. Annales du Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, 10, 8–66 + 1 pl.

de Buffrenil, V. (1993) Statut et Repartition des Crocodiles en Guinee. Report to BIODEV “Biodiversite et la Developpement” for the CITES Secretariat,13 pp.

Densmore, L.D. (1983) Biochemical and immunological systematics of the order Crocodilia. In: M. K. Hecht, B. Wallace, and G. H. Prance (Eds), Evol. Biol. Plenum Press, New York, pp. 397–465.

Densmore, L.D., & Owen, R.D. (1989) Molecular systematics of the order Crocodilia. American Zoologist, 29, 831–841.

Dore, M.P.O. (1991) Crocodile rehabilitation project. Crocodile Specialist Group Newsletter, 10, 5–6.

Dore, M.P.O. (1996) Status of crocodiles in Nigeria. Crocodile Specialist Group Newsletter, 15, 15–16.

Duméril, A. (1852) Description des Reptiles nouveaux ou imparfaitement connus de la collection du Museum d’Histoire Naturelle et remarques sur la classification et les caracteres des reptiles.  Premier memoire. Ordre des cheloniens et premieres families de l’ordre des Saur.

Duméril, A. (1861) Reptiles et poissons de l’Afrique Occidentale.  Etude precedee de considerations generales sur leur distribution geograsphique.

Duméril, A.M.C., & Bibron, G. (1836) II Ordre- Sauriens ou Lézards. I Familie- Aspidiotes ou Crocodiliens. In: Erpétologie Générale de Histoire Naturelle Compléte des Reptiles. Paris.

Duméril, A.M.C., & Duméril, A. (1851) Catalogue Methodique de la Collection des Reptiles. Gide et Baudry, Libraires-Editeurs, Paris, pp. 1–152.

Eaton, M.J. (2008) National report- Republic of Congo. In: IUCN (Ed), Proceedings of the 1st Workshop of the West African Countries on Crocodilian farming and conservation. La Tapoa, Regional Parc W, Niger, pp. 89–94.

Eaton, M.J., & Barr, B. (2005) Crocodile survey performed in Lac Tele in the northern Republic of Congo. Crocodile Specialist Group Newsletter, 24, 18–20.

Eaton, M.J., Martin, A., Thorbjarnarson, J.B., & Amato, G.D. (2009) Species-level diversification of African dwarf crocodiles (Genus Osteolaemus): a geographic and phylogenetic perspective. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 50, 496–506.

Ferguson, M.W.J. (1985) Reproductive biology and embryology of the crocodilians. In: C. Gans, F. S. Billet, and P. F. A. Maderson (Eds), Biology of the Reptilia, Vol. 14. Development A. John Wiley and Sons, New York, pp. 329–491.

Fergusson, R.A. (2003). Crocodiles in Congo: A feasibility study of crocodile production at Inongo, Democratic Republic of Congo. Gesellsschaft fuer Technische Zusammenarbeit: Eschborn.

Gatesy, J., Amato, G.D., Norell, M., Desalle, R., & Hayashi, C. (2003) Combined support for wholesale taxic atavism in gavialine crocodylians. Systematic Biology, 52, 403–422.

Gatesy, J., Baker, R.H., & Hayashi, C. (2004) Inconsistencies in arguments for the supertree approach: Supermatrices versus supertrees of Crocodylia. Systematic Biology, 53, 342–355.

Gray, J.E. (1862) A synopsis of the species of crocodiles. Annals and Magazine of Natural History. (ser. 3), 10, 265–274.

Gray, J.E. (1863) On the change of form of the head of crocodiles, and on the crocodiles of India and Africa. Report of the first and second meetings of the British Association for the advancement of science, 32, 106–107.

Grenard, S. (1991) Handbook of Alligators and Crocodiles. Krieger Publishing Company, Malabar, FL, 210 pp.

Groombridge, B. (1982) The IUCN Amphibia-Reptilia Red Data Book, pt. 1: Testudines, Crocodylia, Rhynchocephalia. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.

Groombridge, B. (1987) The distribution and status of world crocodilians. In: G J W Webb, S. C. Manolis, and P. J. Whitehead (Eds), Wildlife management: Crocodiles and alligators. Surrey Beatty and Sons Pty Ltd., Chipping Norton, New South Wales, Australia. 522 pp., pp. 9–21 in Webb, Manolis, and Whitehead.

Groves, J.D. (2012) African Slender-snouted Crocodile Crocodylus cataphractus. In: North American Regional Studbook 2012, 60 pp.

Hakansson, N.T. (1981) An Annotated Checklist of Reptiles Known to Occur in The Gambia. Journal of Herpetology, 15, 155–161.

Hekkala, E., Shirley, M.H., Amato, G.D., Austin, J.D., Charter, S., Thorbjarnarson, J.B., Vliet, K.A., Houck, M.L., Desalle, R., & Blum, M.J. (2011) An ancient icon reveals new mysteries: mummy DNA resurrects a cryptic species within the Nile crocodile. Molecular Ecology, 20, 4195–4215.

Jones, S. (1991) Crocodile declines in West Africa. Crocodile Specialist Group Newsletter, 10, 7–8.

King, F.W., & Burke, R.L. (1989) Crocodilians, Tuatara, and Turtle species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference. Association Systematic Collections, Washington, D.C., 216 pp.

Kofron, C.P. (1992) Status and habitats of the three African crocodiles in Liberia. Journal of Tropical Ecology, 8, 265–273.

Kpera, N. (2003) Notes of crocodiles in Benin. Crocodile Specialist Group Newsletter, 22, 3.

Lang, H. (1919) Ecological notes on Congo crocodiles. In: K. P. Schmidt (Ed), Contributions to the Herpetology of the Belgian Congo Based on the Collection of the American Museum 1909–1915 Congo Expedition. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, pp. 425–435.

LeGrand, G.N., & LeBreton, M. (2010) An overview of the distribution and present status of crocodiles in Cameroon. In: Crocodiles. Actes du 2eme Congres du Groupe des Specialistes des Crocodiles sur la promotion et la conservation des crocodiliens en Afrique de l’Ouest. UICN – Union Internationale pour la Conservation de la Nature, Gland, Switzerland, 274 pp.

Luiselli, L., Politano, E., & Akani, G.C. (2000) Crocodile distribution in S.E. Nigeria, Part II. Crocodile Specialist Group Newsletter, 19, 4–6.

Meredith, R.W., Hekkala, E., Amato, G.D., & Gatesy, J. (2011) A phylogenetic hypothesis for Crocodylus (Crocodylia) based on mitochondrial DNA: Evidence for a trans-Atlantic voyage from Africa to the New World. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 60, 183–191.

Mook, C.C. (1921) Skull characters of recent Crocodilia, with notes on the affinities of the recent genera. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History ,44, 123–268.

Murray, A. (1862) Description of Crocodilus frontatus, a new crocodile from Old Calabar River, West Africa. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (ser. 3), 11, 222–227.

Neill, W.T. (1971) The Last of the Ruling Reptiles: Alligators, Crocodiles, and their Kin.Columbia University Press, New York, pp. 1–486.

Oaks, J.R. (2011) A time-calibrated species tree of Crocodylia reveals a recent radiation of the true crocodiles. Evolution, 65, 3285–3297.

Owen, R. (1853) Descriptive Catalogue of the Osteological Series Contained inthe Museum of the Royal College of Surgeons of England. vol. 1: Pisces, Reptilia, Aves, Marsupialia. Taylor and Francis, London, pp. 151–167.

Pauwels, O.S.G. (2006) Crocodiles and national parks in Gabon. Crocodile Specialist Group Newsletter, 25, 12–14.

Pauwels, O.S.G., Toham, A.K., & Chimsunchart, C. (2002) Recherches sur l’herpétofaune du Massif du Chaillu, Gabon. Bulletin de l’Institute Royal des Sciences Naturelle Belgique, Biologie, 72, 47–57.

Pearcy, A., & Wijtten, Z. (2011) A morphometric analysis of crocodilian skull shapes. Herpetological Journal, 21, 213–218.

Pierce, S.E., Angielczyk, K.D., & Rayfield, E.J. (2008) Patterns of morphospace occupation and mechanical performance in extant crocodilian skulls: A combined morphometric and finite element modeling approach. Journal of Morphology, 269, 840–864.

Pooley, A.C. (1982) The status of African crocodiles in 1980. In: Crocodiles.  Proceedings of the 5th Working Meeting of the Crocodile Specialist Group, IUCN – The World Conservation Union, Gland, Switzerland. ISBN 2-8032-209-X. 409 pp., pp. 174–228.

Ross, F.D., & Mayer, G.C. (1983) On the dorsal armor of the Crocodilia. In: A. G. J. Rhodin and K. Miyata (Eds), Advances in Herpetology and Evolutionary Biology. Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Massechusetts, pp. 305–331.

Ross, J.P. (Ed) (1998) Crocodiles: Status and Conservation Action Plan. 2nd Edition. IUCN/SSC Crocodile Specialist Group, Gland, Switzerland. Available from: (accessed 16 April 2014)

Ruvell, R. (1996) Benin – More on C. cataphractus. Crocodile Specialist Group Newsletter, 15, 4.

Sadleir, R.W. (2009) A morphometric study of crocodylian ecomorphology through ontogeny and phylogeny. PhD Dissertation, University of Chicago, 1–229.

Schmidt, K.P. (1919) Contributions to the herpetology of the Belgian Congo. Part 1. Turtles, crocodiles, lizards and chameleons. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, 39, 385–624.

Schmitz, A., Mausfeld, P., Hekkala, E., Shine, T., Nickel, H., Amato, G.D., & Böhme, W. (2003) Molecular evidence for species level divergence in African Nile Crocodiles Crocodylus niloticus (Laurenti 1786). Comptes Rendus Palevol, 2, 703–712.

Segniagbeto, G.H., Petrozzi, F., Aïdam, A. & Luiselli, L. (2013) Reptiles traded in the fetish market of Lomé, Togo (West Africa). Herpetological Conservation and Biology, 8, 400−408.

Shirley, M.H., Oduro, W., & Yaokokore-Beibro, H. (2009) Conservation status of crocodiles in Ghana and Côte-d’lvoire, West Africa. Oryx, 43, 136–145.

Shirley, M.H., V. Villanova, K.A. Vliet, J.D. Austin. (2014) Genetic barcoding facilitates captive management of three cryptic African crocodile species complexes. Animal Conservation. doi:10.1111/acv.12176

Simbotwe, M.P. (1993) Crocodile census on Lake Tanganyika. Crocodile Specialist Group Newsletter, 12, 17.

Smith, H.M., & Smith, R.B. (1977) Synopsis of the Herpetofauna of Mexico. Volume V. Guide to Mexican Amphisbaenians and Crocodilians Biblographic Addenum II. John Johnson, North Bennington, 49–104 + 6 plates pp.

Steel, R. (1973). Handbuch der Paläoherpetologie. Part 16: Crocodylia. Stuttgart, Gustav Fisher Verlag.

Storrs, G.W. (2003) Late Miocene–Early Pliocene crocodilian fauna of Lothagam, southwest Turkana Basin, Kenya. In: M. G. Leakey and J. M. Harris (Eds), Lothagam: The Dawn of Humanity in Eastern Africa. Columbia Univ. Press, New York, pp. 137–159.

Taylor, P. (1998) More on Crocodylus cataphractus. Crocodile Specialist Group Newsletter, 17, 10.

Tchernov, E. (1976) Crocodilians from the late Cenozoic of the Rudolf Basin. In: Y. Copens and et al. (Eds), Earliest Man and Environments in the Lake Rudolf Basin. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, pp. 370–378.

Tchernov, E. (1986) Évolution des Crocodiles en Afrique du Nord et de l’Est. Éditions du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique., Paris, 65 pp.

Thomas, B. (1998) Cataphractus still found in Zambia. Crocodile Specialist Group Newsletter, 17, 4.

Thorbjarnarson, J.B., & Eaton, M.J. (2003) Congo and Gabon: Crocodile surveys. Crocodile Specialist Group Newsletter, 22, 6–8.

Thorbjarnarson, J.B., & Eaton, M.J. (2004) A preliminary investigation of crocodile bushmeat issues in the Republic of Congo and Gabon. In: Crocodiles. Proceedings of the 17th Working Meeting of the Crocodile Specialist Group, IUCN. The World Conservation Union, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK, pp. 236–247.

Tornier, G. (1901) Die crocodile, schildkroten und eidechsen von Togu. Archiv für Naturgeschichte, 7, 65–88.

Tornier, G. (1902) Die Crocodile, Schildkroten und Eidechsen von Kamarun. Zoologische Jahrbuecher. Abteilung fuer Systematic Oekologie und Geographie der Tiere, 15, 663–667.

Vaillant, L.M. (1898) Contribution à l’étude des Emydosauriens. Cataloque raisonné des Jacaretinga et Alligator de la collection du Muséum. Nouvelles Archives du Museum D’Histoire Naturelle De Paris, (3), 10, 143–211.

Waitkuwait, W.E. (2002) Cote d’Ivoire, project crocodiles. Crocodile Specialist Group Newsletter, 21, 5–7.

Watanabe, A. (2012) The Ontogeny of Cranial Morphology in Extant Crocodilians and its Phylogenetic Utility: A Geometric Morphometric Approach. Msc Thesis, Florida State University, 192 pp.

Wermuth, H., & Mertens, R. (1977) Liste der rezenten Amphibien und Reptilien. Testudines, Crocodylia, Rhynchocephalia. Das Tierreich, 100, 1–174.

White, P.S., & Densmore, L.D. (2001) DNA sequence alignment and data analysis methods: their effect on the recovery of crocodylian relationships. In: G. C. Grigg, F. Seebacher, and C. E. Franklin (Eds), Crocodilian Biology and Evolution. Surrey Beatty & Sons Pty. Limited, Chipping Norton, N.S.W., Australia, pp. 29–37.

Wild, C.J. (2000) Report on the status of crocodilians in the Cameroon forest zone. In: Crocodiles. Proceedings of the 15th Working Meeting of the Crocodile Specialist Group. IUCN-The World Coservation Union. Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, England., pp. 539–543.

Become a member of the croc gang!